3d printed temporal bones and other head and neck models are on the horizon.
Accuracy can be upto 100 microns.
Hardness matches that of the bone.
These models can be used to practice various surgeries on Temporal Bone such as:
Facial nerve exploration
Endolymphatic sac surgeries
And many more.
Preoperative CT scans can be used to model a 3D printed facial skeleton, sinonasal and dental regions, temporal bones etc for practice before a complicated surgery. Operating times are markedly reduced by these practice 3D models.